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Table 3 Estimation results of random-effects models of log hourly wage

From: Place of study, field of study and labour-market region: What matters for wage differences among higher-education graduates?

  M0 M1 M2 M3 M4a M4b
Grade of entrance certificate (reverse-coded)   0.052*** (0.013) 0.047*** (0.013) 0.035** (0.013) 0.037** (0.012) 0.037** (0.012)
Gender (female)   − 0.146*** (0.016) − 0.137*** (0.016) − 0.076*** (0.017) − 0.074*** (0.016) − 0.077*** (0.016)
Age (years)   0.021*** (0.004) 0.016*** (0.004) 0.011*** (0.003) 0.011** (0.003) 0.011*** (0.003)
Parents have higher education   0.019 (0.016) 0.010 (0.015) 0.004 (0.015) 0.013 (0.014) 0.010 (0.014)
Degree at type of institution
(ref. diploma—UAS)
 Diploma/Magister—Univ.    − 0.028 (0.031) 0.031 (0.027) 0.029 (0.023) 0.031 (0.023)
 Bachelor—UAS    − 0.086** (0.027) − 0.096*** (0.024) − 0.106*** (0.023) − 0.095*** (0.023)
 Bachelor—Univ.    − 0.241*** (0.037) − 0.162*** (0.033) − 0.164*** (0.030) − 0.152*** (0.030)
 State examination—UAS    − 0.040 (0.039) − 0.080~ (0.045) − 0.078~ (0.041) − 0.081~ (0.041)
NUTS-2 earnings (in €100)      0.016*** (0.002)  
Constant 2.711*** (0.015) 2.027*** (0.116) 2.262*** (0.119) 2.287*** (0.116) 1.844*** (0.127) 2.276*** (0.115)
Random effects part
 SD (HEI) 0.138*** (0.014) 0.122*** (0.013) 0.117*** (0.012) 0.064*** (0.012) 0.024*** (0.021) 0.020*** (0.023)
 SD (Individual) 0.352*** (0.006) 0.342*** (0.005) 0.338*** (0.005) 0.319*** (0.005) 0.317*** (0.005) 0.316*** (0.005)
 SD (FoS)     0.156*** (0.019) 0.156*** (0.019) 0.157*** (0.019)
 SD (AdReg)       0.068*** (0.012)
Log-likelihood − 889.831 − 820.196 − 788.158 − 675.637 − 645.644 − 652.993
ICC HEI 0.134 0.112 0.108 0.031 0.004 0.003
ICC FoS     0.188 0.194 0.191
ICC AdReg       0.036
N individuals 2175 2175 2175 2175 2175 2175
N HEI 147 147 147 147 147 147
N FoS 53 53 53 53 53 53
N AdReg 38 38 38 38 38 38
  1. Standard errors in parentheses, standard deviations of random effects are reported
  2. ~p < 0.10, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  3. Data source: DZHW Graduate Panel 2009; BBSR Bonn 2019, authors’ calculations
  4. UAS university of applied sciences, Univ. university, HEI higher-education institution, FoS field of study, AdReg administrative region