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Table 1 Descriptive statistics on wages, physical proximity, working time patterns and physical working conditions

From: COVID-19 and the labour market: What are the working conditions in critical jobs?

   All observations Critical workers Noncritical workers
   Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Wages Hourly wage 19.52 11.469 18.74 11.752 20.19 11.178
Physical proximity at work Physical proximity to others 0.76 1.317 0.85 1.280 0.68 1.342
Home office work 0.20 0.693 0.12 0.583 0.26 0.769
Duration of work and atypical working hours Weekly overtime (in hours) 3.23 4.161 3.33 4.496 3.14 3.849
Working hours usually between 07:00 and 19:00 0.71 0.455 0.63 0.482 0.77 0.420
Only early or late shift work: working hours not between 07:00 and 19:00 0.10 0.304 0.11 0.317 0.09 0.291
Shift work without night work 0.10 0.299 0.12 0.323 0.08 0.276
Shift work and night work 0.09 0.287 0.14 0.343 0.05 0.223
No weekend work 0.60 0.491 0.51 0.500 0.67 0.470
Work on Saturday 0.17 0.380 0.17 0.372 0.18 0.385
Work on Saturday and Sunday 0.23 0.420 0.33 0.469 0.15 0.355
Working time autonomy Regular on-call or standby service 0.09 0.293 0.13 0.342 0.06 0.238
Make own decisions about breaks 0.34 0.641 0.30 0.649 0.37 0.631
Not expected to be accessible in private life 0.63 0.483 0.60 0.491 0.66 0.475
Expected to be partially accessible in private life 0.15 0.354 0.15 0.357 0.14 0.351
Expected to be accessible in private life 0.22 0.417 0.25 0.435 0.20 0.400
Separation of work and private life possible 0.73 0.453 0.69 0.461 0.77 0.444
Muscular and skeletal strain Working in a standing position 0.53 0.509 0.63 0.483 0.45 0.515
Working in a sitting position 0.55 0.507 0.51 0.521 0.59 0.491
Kneeling, bending, working over head 0.16 0.368 0.19 0.389 0.14 0.348
Lifting and carrying heavy loads 0.20 0.403 0.26 0.439 0.16 0.363
Strain from the working environment Noise 0.30 0.468 0.32 0.490 0.28 0.448
Bright, poor, faint light 0.12 0.351 0.15 0.413 0.09 0.283
Cold, heat, wetness, dampness, draughts 0.24 0.459 0.29 0.497 0.20 0.419
Can influence the work tasks that must be carried out 0.35 0.587 0.31 0.585 0.38 0.587
  1. Results are weighted
  2. Source: Working Time Survey 2019; own calculations