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Table 3 Unit root tests for unemployment rates for the U.S

From: The impact of the coronavirus on African American unemployment: lessons from history

Variable ADF Phillips-Perron
Panel A. Full Sample Period
 Total − 1.574 − 0.908
 ΔTotal − 4.701*** − 18.178***
 AA − 0.847 − 0.918
 ΔAA − 7.600*** − 25.686***
 Whites − 1.604 − 1.000
 ΔWhites − 4.986*** − 19.515***
 Latin − 1.104 − 1.125
 ΔLatin − 7.081 − 25.284***
Panel B. Post 911 Subsample Period
 Total − 1.396 − 1.096
 ΔTotal − 2.872*** − 8.914***
 AA − 1.578 − 1.967
 ΔAA − 3.798*** − 13.088***
 Whites − 1.322 − 1.231
 ΔWhites − 3.550*** − 9.485***
 Latin − 0.957 − 1.280
 ΔLatin − 3.879*** − 12.414***
Panel C. Financial Crisis—Inception to Peak
 Total − 1.273 − 1.499
 ΔTotal − 1.218 − 3.356**
 AA − 1.246 − 1.293
 ΔAA − 2.123** − 6.702***
 Whites − 1.404 − 1.547
 ΔWhites − 1.133 − 3.774***
 Latin − 1.435 − 1.597
 ΔLatin − 1.591 − 6.546***
Panel D. Post Financial Recession
 Total − 3.451** − 2.969**
 ΔTotal − 6.148*** − 14.607***
 AA − 1.058 − 1.077
 ΔAA − 5.719*** − 17.790***
 Whites − 3.560*** − 3.125**
 ΔWhites − 5.919*** − 14.992***
 Latin − 2.802 − 2.883
 ΔLatin − 5.574*** − 13.985