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Table 1 Average marginal effects: underemployment and employment by gender

From: Measuring the effect of gender segregation on the gender gap in time-related underemployment

Variable Women Men
Under Employ Under Employ
Educational attainment (omitted: primary education or less)
 Compulsory secondary − 0.006 0.077*** 0.003 0.082***
 Non-compulsory secondary − 0.024*** 0.141*** − 0.013 0.142***
Lower vocational training
 Education − 0.026 0.116*** 0.049 0.181***
 Arts and humanities 0.012 0.170*** 0.066 0.116***
 Social sciences − 0.092** 0.342*** − 0.109*** 0.149
 Business, administration, law − 0.014 0.134*** − 0.009 0.133***
 Sciences − 0.012 0.194*** 0.036 0.029
 ICT − 0.052 0.124** 0.060* 0.135***
 Technology − 0.026 0.096*** 0.002 0.138***
 Agriculture 0.007 0.121** − 0.021 0.163***
 Health − 0.036*** 0.183*** 0.005 0.127***
 Social services − 0.031*** 0.145*** − 0.006 0.122***
Higher vocational training
 Education − 0.019 0.171*** 0.073* 0.190***
 Arts and humanities − 0.016 0.136*** − 0.011 0.138***
 Social sciences 0.025 0.153*** 0.020 0.179***
 Business, administration, law − 0.034*** 0.171*** − 0.024* 0.169***
 Sciences − 0.054** 0.174*** − 0.045 0.160***
 ICT − 0.028 0.187*** − 0.042*** 0.206***
 Technology − 0.005 0.174*** − 0.016* 0.179***
 Agriculture − 0.005 0.030 0.020 0.156***
 Health − 0.038*** 0.181*** − 0.003 0.164***
 Social services − 0.036** 0.153*** − 0.013 0.155***
Short-cycle university
 Education − 0.028** 0.224*** 0.021 0.185***
 Arts and humanities 0.062* 0.125*** − 0.070*** 0.117***
 Social sciences 0.012 0.132*** 0.055 0.147***
 Business, administration, law − 0.059*** 0.169*** − 0.042*** 0.189***
 Sciences − 0.046 0.146*** − 0.022 0.170***
 ICT − 0.060** 0.161*** − 0.060*** 0.214***
 Technology 0.007 0.152*** − 0.054*** 0.174***
 Agriculture − 0.020 0.160*** − 0.058** 0.114**
 Health − 0.040*** 0.230*** − 0.004 0.200***
 Social services − 0.067*** 0.182*** − 0.033 0.204***
Long-cycle university
 Education 0.000 0.203*** 0.008 0.167***
 Arts and humanities 0.015 0.127*** − 0.001 0.112***
 Social sciences − 0.017 0.130*** − 0.008 0.125***
 Business, administration, law − 0.074*** 0.192*** − 0.069*** 0.183***
 Sciences − 0.030* 0.180*** − 0.070*** 0.184***
 ICT − 0.099*** 0.270*** − 0.098*** 0.246***
 Technology − 0.012 0.149*** − 0.057*** 0.201***
 Agriculture − 0.048* 0.169*** − 0.093*** 0.147***
 Health − 0.075*** 0.272*** − 0.078*** 0.267***
 Social services − 0.027 0.210*** − 0.051*** 0.161***
Student − 0.011* − 0.058*** − 0.001 − 0.072***
Time to complete studies (omitted: within appropriate time)
 Less than three years late 0.013*** − 0.044*** 0.009 − 0.028***
 Three or more years late 0.047*** − 0.074*** 0.010 − 0.052***
Age (omitted: 16–19)
 20–24 0.019 0.158*** 0.010 0.084***
 25–29 0.008 0.232*** 0.009 0.135***
 30–34 0.008 0.269*** 0.003 0.153***
 Live with parents 0.018*** − 0.099*** − 0.004 − 0.092***
 Live in couple − 0.006 − 0.010 − 0.028*** 0.048***
 Children under 16 0.003 − 0.086*** 0.017** − 0.029***
 Non-Spanish 0.050*** − 0.057*** 0.071*** − 0.076***
Occupational segregation (omitted: male-dominated)
 Integrated 0.007   − 0.001  
 Female-dominated 0.046***   0.028***  
Industry segregation (omitted: male-dominated)
 Integrated 0.023***   0.026***  
 Female-dominated 0.045***   0.016**  
 Tenure 12 months or less 0.039***   0.041***  
Professional status (omitted: self-employed)
 Public sector employee with permanent contract − 0.000   0.001  
 Public sector employee with fixed-term contract 0.072***   0.067***  
 Private sector employee with permanent contract 0.040***   0.029***  
 Private sector employee with fixed-term contract 0.124***   0.092***  
Firm size (omitted: up to 10 workers)
 More than 10 workers − 0.040***   − 0.021***  
 Unknown − 0.042***   − 0.041***  
 Unemployment ratea 0.002***   0.003***  
NUTS Region (omitted: Northwest)
 Northeast − 0.003** 0.043*** − 0.002*** 0.019***
 Madrid − 0.002** 0.032*** − 0.001 0.010
 Centre 0.002** − 0.028*** − 0.000 0.002
 East − 0.002** 0.026*** 0.000 − 0.001
 South 0.003** − 0.056*** 0.006*** − 0.059***
 Canary Islands 0.003** − 0.045*** 0.007*** − 0.064***
 After 2012 labour reform 0.041***   0.026***  
  1. The year when the survey was carried out is controlled for, but not reported
  2. Under: underemployed. Employ: employed
  3. a Unemployment rate by gender and year in the Autonomous Region of residence
  4. *p < .10. **p < .05. ***p < .01