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Table 8 Estimation results of random-effects models of log hourly wage for workers in West Germany only

From: Place of study, field of study and labour-market region: What matters for wage differences among higher-education graduates?

  M0 M1 M2 M3 M4a M4b
Grade of entrance certificate (reverse-coded)   0.052*** (0.015) 0.049** (0.015) 0.042** (0.014) 0.040** (0.014) 0.042** (0.014)
Gender (female)   − 0.129*** (0.018) − 0.119*** (0.018) − 0.057** (0.019) − 0.057** (0.019) − 0.057** (0.019)
Age (years)   0.023*** (0.004) 0.017*** (0.004) 0.011** (0.004) 0.011** (0.004) 0.011** (0.004)
Parents have higher education   0.030~ (0.018) 0.021 (0.018) 0.019 (0.016) 0.018 (0.016) 0.019 (0.016)
Degree at type of institution
(ref. diploma—UAS)
 Diploma/Magister—Univ.    − 0.052 (0.033) − 0.004 (0.026) − 0.003 (0.026) − 0.004 (0.026)
 Bachelor—UAS    − 0.098*** (0.030) − 0.129*** (0.026) − 0.129*** (0.026) − 0.129*** (0.026)
 Bachelor—Univ.    − 0.270*** (0.040) − 0.213*** (0.033) − 0.211*** (0.033) − 0.213*** (0.033)
 State examination—UAS    − 0.055 (0.042) − 0.125** (0.047) − 0.123** (0.047) − 0.125** (0.047)
NUTS-2 earnings (in €100)      0.008~ (0.005)  
Constant 2.756*** (0.016) 2.006*** (0.132) 2.274*** (0.136) 2.335*** (0.130) 2.086*** (0.194) 2.335*** (0.130)
Random-effects part
 SD (HEI) 0.138*** (0.016) 0.119*** (0.015) 0.111*** (0.014) 0.025*** (0.025) 0.023** (0.028) 0.025*** (0.025)
 SD (Individual) 0.346*** (0.006) 0.337*** (0.006) 0.332*** (0.006) 0.312*** (0.006) 0.312*** (0.006) 0.312*** (0.006)
 SD (FoS)     0.164*** (0.020) 0.164*** (0.020) 0.164*** (0.020)
 SD (AdReg)       0.000*** (0.000)
Log-Likelihood − 629.361 − 580.346 − 551.332 − 454.278 − 452.782 − 454.278
ICC HEI 0.137 0.112 0.100 0.005 0.004 0.005
ICC FoS     0.215 0.216 0.215
ICC AdReg       0.000
N individuals 1593 1593 1593 1593 1593 1593
N HEI 142 142 142 142 142 142
N FoS 52 52 52 52 52 52
N AdReg 30 30 30 30 30 30
  1. Standard errors in parentheses; standard deviations of random effects are reported
  2. ~p < 0.10, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  3. Data source: DZHW Graduate Panel 2009; BBSR Bonn 2019, authors’ calculations
  4. UAS university of applied sciences, Univ. university, HEI higher-education institutions, FoS field of study, AdReg administrative region