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Table 9 Effects of unemployment stigma on subjective well-being (H1), health (H2), re-employment expectations (H3) and value placed on employment (H4) after controlling for pressure by an employment office

From: The social stigma of unemployment: consequences of stigma consciousness on job search attitudes, behaviour and success

  H1: Subjective well-being H2: Health H3: Expectations H4: Value
Model 1a Model 2a Model 3a Model 4a
Stigma consciousness (0–10) − 0.310***
(0.034)
− 0.204***
(0.041)
− 0.043**
(0.014)
0.129***
(0.017)
Sample (R: population sample)
Integration agreement signed (R: yes)
 No agreement signed 0.257
(0.195)
0.058
(0.234)
0.044
(0.082)
0.151
(0.111)
 Does not apply 0.176
(0.338)
0.166
(0.378)
0.281#
(0.145)
0.199
(0.166)
Experiences with job center (negative to positive) − 0.241**
(0.075)
− 0.027
(0.090)
− 0.116***
(0.029)
− 0.128***
(0.035)
Employment status at wave 6 (R: employed)
 Unemployed − 0.336#
(0.196)
− 0.192
(0.259)
− 0.196*
(0.089)
− 0.203*
(0.099)
 Out of the labour force − 0.236
(0.578)
− 0.387
(0.759)
− 0.019
(0.315)
0.201
(0.357)
Male − 0.358**
(0.118)
− 0.088
(0.149)
0.068
(0.051)
− 0.158*
(0.062)
Unemployment duration (years) 0.007
(0.015)
− 0.038#
(0.020)
− 0.018***
(0.005)
0.015*
(0.007)
Number of previous unemployment episodes − 0.060
(0.075)
0.156
(0.098)
0.044
(0.034)
0.018
(0.034)
Age − 0.102*
(0.040)
− 0.286***
(0.050)
0.000
(0.017)
0.039#
(0.022)
Age2 0.001*
(0.000)
0.003***
(0.001)
− 0.000
(0.000)
− 0.000
(0.000)
Migration background 0.279*
(0.139)
0.388*
(0.181)
0.085
(0.065)
− 0.002
(0.075)
Education (R: elementary) (CASMIN)
 Secondary − 0.112
(0.136)
− 0.258
(0.176)
− 0.041
(0.061)
− 0.114
(0.074)
 Maturity − 0.172
(0.184)
0.481*
(0.231)
0.074
(0.089)
− 0.350***
(0.094)
 Tertiary − 0.150
(0.219)
0.411
(0.252)
0.076
(0.092)
− 0.338**
(0.104)
Married 0.106
(0.155)
− 0.232
(0.188)
− 0.055
(0.071)
0.148#
(0.087)
Household size 0.077
(0.063)
0.109
(0.087)
− 0.025
(0.034)
− 0.010
(0.041)
Household income 0.010
(0.015)
0.012
(0.019)
0.001
(0.007)
0.011
(0.008)
West Germany − 0.041
(0.127)
− 0.463**
(0.159)
0.042
(0.056)
− 0.099
(0.067)
Constant 9.936***
(0.857)
13.078***
(1.113)
2.874***
(0.380)
− 1.584**
(0.483)
Observations 1198 1198 1198 1198
  1. Weighted to account for panel attrition from wave 7 to 8; multiple imputation by chained equations to account for missing values data (40 imputations, burn in period of 30 iterations). Goodness-of-fit tests not available after multiple imputation in STATA (see STATA multiple imputation reference manual release 13, p. 79)
  2. Outcome variables Models 1 to 4: Life satisfaction (11-pt. scale); health satisfaction (11-pt. scale); self-assessed re-employment chances (4-pt. scale) factor score non-monetary motivation to work (continuous)
  3. Robust standard errors in parentheses; ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, #p < 0.10; Sample contains only unemployed in sgb-II context (welfare benefit)
  4. Estimation methods: alinear regression