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Table 8 Effects of unemployment stigma after controlling for the initial situation during the job search (as available)

From: The social stigma of unemployment: consequences of stigma consciousness on job search attitudes, behaviour and success

  H1: Subjective well-being H2: Health H5: Active job search (yes) H5: Search intensity H6: Number of interviews
Model 1a Model 2a Model 3a Model 4a Model 5a
Stigma consciousness (0–10) − 0.196***
(0.029)
− 0.114**
(0.037)
0.014*
(0.007)
0.044*
(0.019)
0.095*
(0.048)
Initial subjective well-being 0.462***
(0.026)
    
Initial health satisfaction   0.439***
(0.032)
   
Initial active job search    0.443***
(0.029)
  
Initial number job search methods     0.265***
(0.018)
 
Initial number of interviews      0.525***
(0.124)
Sample (R: population sample) − 0.141
(0.212)
0.008
(0.276)
0.051
(0.054)
0.170
(0.136)
1.053*
(0.427)
Employment status at wave 6 (R: employed)
 Unemployed 0.034
(0.159)
0.175
(0.237)
− 0.236***
(0.043)
− 0.453***
(0.105)
− 0.289
(0.240)
 Out of the labour force 0.439
(0.542)
− 0.040
(0.688)
− 0.270#
(0.139)
− 0.540
(0.346)
− 0.580
(0.622)
Male − 0.181#
(0.102)
− 0.063
(0.132)
0.015
(0.026)
0.038
(0.068)
0.569**
(0.192)
Unemployment duration (years) 0.003
(0.013)
− 0.031#
(0.016)
− 0.006*
(0.003)
− 0.023*
(0.009)
− 0.140***
(0.031)
Number of previous unemployment episodes − 0.088
(0.059)
0.041
(0.084)
− 0.003
(0.017)
0.016
(0.042)
0.080
(0.132)
Age − 0.052
(0.035)
− 0.167***
(0.047)
0.029**
(0.009)
0.113***
(0.025)
0.149*
(0.063)
Age2 0.001
(0.000)
0.002**
(0.001)
− 0.000***
(0.000)
− 0.001***
(0.000)
− 0.002**
(0.001)
Migration background 0.069
(0.124)
0.174
(0.159)
− 0.074*
(0.031)
− 0.126
(0.086)
0.125
(0.192)
Education (R: elementary) (CASMIN)
 Secondary − 0.017
(0.114)
− 0.195
(0.156)
0.013
(0.032)
0.185*
(0.080)
− 0.369#
(0.216)
 Maturity − 0.056
(0.172)
0.425*
(0.211)
− 0.021
(0.044)
− 0.031
(0.106)
− 0.009
(0.258)
 Tertiary − 0.161
(0.185)
0.268
(0.219)
0.063
(0.043)
0.084
(0.106)
− 0.300
(0.271)
Married − 0.022
(0.133)
0.011
(0.167)
− 0.032
(0.035)
− 0.124
(0.095)
0.030
(0.223)
Household size 0.048
(0.053)
0.045
(0.078)
0.010
(0.015)
0.002
(0.039)
0.054
(0.087)
Household income − 0.001
(0.010)
0.012
(0.014)
0.004
(0.003)
0.014#
(0.008)
− 0.011
(0.017)
West Germany 0.004
(0.108)
− 0.383**
(0.143)
− 0.025
(0.028)
− 0.087
(0.073)
0.123
(0.211)
Constant 5.536***
(0.778)
7.285***
(1.146)
− 0.093
(0.194)
− 2.039***
(0.538)
− 5.035***
(1.436)
Observations 1278 1278 1278 1278 1278
  1. Weighted to account for panel attrition from wave 7 to 8; multiple imputation by chained equations to account for missing values data (40 imputations, burn in period of 40 iterations). Goodness-of-fit tests not available after multiple imputation in STATA (see STATA multiple imputation reference manual release 13, p. 79)
  2. Outcome variables Models 1 to 5: Life satisfaction (11-pt. scale); health satisfaction (11-pt. scale); job search activity (yes/no); number of job search methods; number of job interviews
  3. Robust standard errors in parentheses; ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, #p < 0.10
  4. Estimation methods: alinear regression