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Table 7 Effects of unemployment stigma on job search effort (H5) and success (H6) without controlling for unemployment duration

From: The social stigma of unemployment: consequences of stigma consciousness on job search attitudes, behaviour and success

  H5a/b: Job search effort H6a/b: Job search success
Active job search (yes) Number of methods Search intensity Hours searched Number of applications Number of interviews Job (yes)
Model 1a Model 2b Model 3a Model 4b Model 5b Model 6b Model 7a
Stigma consciousness (0–10) 0.024**
(0.008)
0.062***
(0.018)
0.261**
(0.081)
0.064#
(0.035)
0.061#
(0.034)
0.048
(0.050)
− 0.005
(0.005)
Employment status at wave 6 (R: employed)
 Unemployed − 0.073#
(0.042)
− 0.125
(0.091)
− 0.427
(0.452)
0.008
(0.139)
− 0.223
(0.171)
− 0.594*
(0.240)
− 0.184***
(0.031)
 Out of the labour force 0.060
(0.138)
− 0.122
(0.299)
0.606
(1.693)
0.215
(0.441)
− 0.918#
(0.490)
− 0.565
(0.593)
− 0.038
(0.108)
Male 0.054#
(0.028)
0.125#
(0.067)
0.637*
(0.310)
0.313**
(0.108)
0.182
(0.125)
0.697***
(0.197)
0.016
(0.018)
Age 0.039***
(0.009)
0.116***
(0.024)
0.429***
(0.100)
0.153***
(0.039)
0.104*
(0.041)
0.094
(0.064)
0.004
(0.006)
Age2 − 0.001***
(0.000)
− 0.002***
(0.000)
− 0.006***
(0.001)
− 0.002***
(0.000)
− 0.002**
(0.000)
− 0.002*
(0.001)
− 0.000
(0.000)
Migration background − 0.059#
(0.035)
− 0.077
(0.086)
− 0.415
(0.383)
0.242#
(0.131)
0.058
(0.146)
0.189
(0.208)
0.036
(0.024)
Education (R: elementary) (CASMIN)
 Secondary 0.045
(0.034)
0.224**
(0.078)
1.038**
(0.380)
0.209
(0.131)
− 0.153
(0.138)
− 0.205
(0.216)
0.019
(0.021)
 Maturity 0.043
(0.048)
0.204#
(0.114)
0.737
(0.523)
0.265
(0.180)
0.055
(0.212)
0.267
(0.275)
0.018
(0.033)
 Tertiary 0.151**
(0.048)
0.387***
(0.106)
1.759**
(0.538)
0.380*
(0.151)
0.331
(0.213)
− 0.155
(0.266)
0.112***
(0.034)
Married − 0.039
(0.038)
− 0.054
(0.095)
− 0.253
(0.410)
− 0.092
(0.154)
− 0.110
(0.166)
0.088
(0.227)
0.004
(0.025)
Household size − 0.011
(0.015)
− 0.060
(0.040)
− 0.242
(0.167)
− 0.136*
(0.059)
− 0.105
(0.082)
− 0.044
(0.083)
− 0.011
(0.011)
Household income 0.006*
(0.003)
0.017*
(0.008)
0.073*
(0.033)
0.026*
(0.011)
0.016
(0.015)
− 0.008
(0.018)
0.006**
(0.002)
West Germany − 0.041
(0.030)
− 0.154*
(0.072)
− 0.601#
(0.333)
− 0.297*
(0.120)
− 0.068
(0.130)
0.160
(0.206)
− 0.004
(0.019)
Constant − 0.256
(0.206)
− 1.808***
(0.533)
− 4.379*
(2.208)
− 2.280**
(0.836)
− 0.318
(0.896)
− 3.347*
(1.445)
0.286*
(0.142)
Observations 1278 1278 1278 1278 1278 1278 1573
  1. Weighted to account for panel attrition from wave 7 to 8; multiple imputation by chained equations to account for missing values data (40 imputations, burn in period of 40 iterations). Goodness-of-fit tests not available after multiple imputation in STATA (see STATA multiple imputation reference manual release 13, p. 79)
  2. Outcome variables Models 1 to 5: job search activity (yes/no); number of job search methods; job search intensity; number of hours spent searching; number of applications; outcome variables Models 6 and 7: number job interviews; employed (yes/no)
  3. Robust standard errors in parentheses; ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, #p < 0.10
  4. Estimation methods: alinear regression, bnegative binomial count data regression