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Table 6 Effects of unemployment stigma on subjective well-being (H1), health (H2), re-employment expectations (H3) and value placed on employment (H4) without controlling for unemployment duration

From: The social stigma of unemployment: consequences of stigma consciousness on job search attitudes, behaviour and success

  H1: Subjective well-being H2: Health H3: Expectations H4: Value
Model 1a Model 2a Model 3a Model 4a
Stigma consciousness (0–10) − 0.318***
(0.033)
− 0.204***
(0.039)
− 0.051***
(0.013)
0.127***
(0.017)
Sample (R: population sample) − 0.149
(0.234)
− 0.007
(0.303)
0.041
(0.099)
0.026
(0.141)
Employment status at wave 6 (R: employed)
 Unemployed − 0.287
(0.179)
− 0.275
(0.238)
− 0.267**
(0.081)
− 0.201*
(0.093)
 Out of the labour force − 0.198
(0.563)
− 0.349
(0.742)
− 0.026
(0.327)
0.183
(0.379)
Male − 0.355**
(0.114)
− 0.024
(0.144)
0.072
(0.050)
− 0.175**
(0.060)
Age − 0.099**
(0.038)
− 0.291***
(0.048)
0.005
(0.016)
0.036#
(0.021)
Age2 0.001*
(0.000)
0.003***
(0.001)
− 0.000*
(0.000)
− 0.000
(0.000)
Migration background 0.348*
(0.135)
0.406*
(0.177)
0.084
(0.064)
0.016
(0.074)
Education (R: elementary) (CASMIN)
 Secondary − 0.070
(0.131)
− 0.106
(0.169)
0.015
(0.060)
− 0.130#
(0.073)
 Maturity − 0.115
(0.176)
0.564*
(0.224)
0.122
(0.086)
− 0.374***
(0.090)
 Tertiary − 0.155
(0.208)
0.618*
(0.240)
0.169#
(0.088)
− 0.329***
(0.099)
Married 0.095
(0.151)
− 0.103
(0.188)
− 0.021
(0.068)
0.170*
(0.084)
Household size 0.063
(0.057)
0.062
(0.081)
− 0.043
(0.029)
0.002
(0.037)
Household income 0.010
(0.011)
0.021
(0.015)
0.002
(0.005)
0.009
(0.007)
West Germany − 0.003
(0.124)
− 0.400**
(0.153)
0.105#
(0.054)
− 0.079
(0.065)
Constant 9.886***
(0.819)
13.241***
(1.092)
2.834***
(0.369)
− 1.473**
(0.466)
Observations 1278 1278 1278 1278
  1. Weighted to account for panel attrition from wave 7 to 8; multiple imputation by chained equations to account for missing values data (40 imputations, burn in period of 30 iterations). Goodness-of-fit tests not available after multiple imputation in STATA (see STATA multiple imputation reference manual release 13, p. 79)
  2. Outcome variables Models 1 to 4: Life satisfaction (11-pt. scale); health satisfaction (11-pt. scale); self-assessed re-employment chances (4-pt. scale) factor score non-monetary motivation to work (continuous)
  3. Robust standard errors in parentheses; ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, #p < 0.10
  4. Estimation methods: a linear regression