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Table 11 Effects of unemployment stigma on subjective well-being (H1), health (H2), re-employment expectations (H3) and value placed on employment (H4) after controlling for personality traits

From: The social stigma of unemployment: consequences of stigma consciousness on job search attitudes, behaviour and success

  H1: Subjective well-being H2: Health H3: Expectations H4: Value
Model 1a Model 2a Model 3a Model 4a
Stigma consciousness (0–10) − 0.235***
(0.035)
− 0.127**
(0.041)
− 0.034*
(0.014)
0.143***
(0.017)
Sample (R: population sample) − 0.011
(0.020)
− 0.027
(0.028)
0.005
(0.009)
− 0.007
(0.011)
 Extraversion 0.010
(0.024)
− 0.014
(0.029)
0.001
(0.010)
0.023#
(0.013)
 Agreeableness 0.025
(0.036)
0.047
(0.044)
− 0.013
(0.016)
0.032
(0.020)
 Conscientiousness 0.033
(0.032)
− 0.022
(0.045)
0.005
(0.014)
− 0.022
(0.018)
 Neuroticism − 0.033#
(0.020)
0.009
(0.026)
0.009
(0.009)
0.008
(0.009)
 Openness to experience − 0.193***
(0.025)
− 0.164***
(0.030)
− 0.029**
(0.011)
− 0.043***
(0.012)
Self-efficacy − 0.152
(0.236)
0.038
(0.303)
0.063
(0.101)
0.032
(0.140)
Employment status at wave 6 (R: employed)
 Unemployed − 0.226
(0.171)
− 0.049
(0.252)
− 0.183*
(0.083)
− 0.183#
(0.095)
 Out of the labour force − 0.059
(0.556)
− 0.112
(0.721)
− 0.015
(0.318)
0.332
(0.366)
Male − 0.383***
(0.113)
− 0.094
(0.144)
0.064
(0.049)
− 0.180**
(0.060)
Unemployment duration (years) − 0.002
(0.014)
− 0.041*
(0.018)
− 0.018***
(0.005)
0.013#
(0.007)
Number of previous unemployment episodes − 0.070
(0.069)
0.133
(0.093)
0.044
(0.032)
0.027
(0.033)
Age − 0.090*
(0.038)
− 0.283***
(0.047)
0.008
(0.017)
0.033
(0.021)
Age2 0.001*
(0.000)
0.003***
(0.001)
− 0.000*
(0.000)
− 0.000
(0.000)
Migration background 0.227#
(0.133)
0.302#
(0.174)
0.070
(0.063)
− 0.025
(0.073)
Education (R: elementary) (CASMIN)
 Secondary − 0.025
(0.128)
− 0.164
(0.168)
− 0.016
(0.061)
− 0.138#
(0.073)
 Maturity 0.022
(0.177)
0.532*
(0.227)
0.066
(0.087)
− 0.350***
(0.092)
 Tertiary − 0.068
(0.213)
0.492*
(0.250)
0.103
(0.091)
− 0.365***
(0.103)
Married 0.202
(0.148)
− 0.066
(0.184)
− 0.024
(0.068)
0.216*
(0.085)
Household size 0.050
(0.055)
0.080
(0.080)
− 0.034
(0.030)
− 0.008
(0.037)
Household income 0.002
(0.011)
0.012
(0.015)
0.001
(0.005)
0.008
(0.006)
West Germany 0.120
(0.121)
− 0.380*
(0.153)
0.088
(0.055)
− 0.037
(0.066)
Constant 11.508***
(1.189)
14.235***
(1.592)
2.833***
(0.534)
− 1.588*
(0.690)
Observations 1278 1278 1278 1278
  1. Weighted to account for panel attrition from wave 7 to 8; multiple imputation by chained equations to account for missing values data (40 imputations, burn in period of 30 iterations). Goodness-of-fit tests not available after multiple imputation in STATA (see STATA multiple imputation reference manual release 13, p. 79)
  2. Outcome variables Models 1 to 4: Life satisfaction (11-pt. scale); health satisfaction (11-pt. scale); self-assessed re-employment chances (4-pt. scale) factor score non-monetary motivation to work (continuous)
  3. Robust standard errors in parentheses; ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, #p < 0.10
  4. Estimation methods: alinear regression