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Table 10 Effects of unemployment stigma on job search effort (H5) and success (H6) after controlling for pressure by an employment office

From: The social stigma of unemployment: consequences of stigma consciousness on job search attitudes, behaviour and success

  H5a/b: Job search effort H6a/b: Job search success
Active job search (yes) Number of methods Search intensity Hours searched Number of applications Number of interviews Job (yes)
Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4b Model 5b Model 6b Model 7a
Stigma consciousness (0–10) 0.030***
(0.008)
0.073***
(0.019)
0.323***
(0.084)
0.089*
(0.036)
0.073*
(0.035)
0.070
(0.050)
− 0.005
(0.005)
Sample (R: population sample)
Integration agreement signed (R: yes)
 No agreement signed − 0.044
(0.049)
− 0.222#
(0.129)
− 0.886#
(0.513)
− 0.373*
(0.175)
− 0.508*
(0.204)
− 0.377
(0.358)
0.011
(0.029)
 Does not apply − 0.022
(0.082)
− 0.066
(0.167)
− 0.413
(0.839)
− 0.235
(0.232)
− 0.266
(0.304)
− 0.700
(0.456)
0.083
(0.059)
Experiences with job center (negative to positive) − 0.031#
(0.017)
− 0.053
(0.040)
− 0.333#
(0.187)
− 0.101
(0.067)
− 0.046
(0.070)
− 0.192#
(0.116)
0.010
(0.011)
Employment status at wave 6 (R: employed)
 Unemployed − 0.055
(0.044)
− 0.021
(0.096)
0.027
(0.481)
0.129
(0.151)
− 0.079
(0.185)
− 0.256
(0.280)
− 0.147***
(0.033)
 Out of the labour force 0.067
(0.132)
− 0.048
(0.306)
0.941
(1.736)
0.181
(0.450)
− 0.908#
(0.507)
− 0.546
(0.606)
− 0.084
(0.111)
Male 0.055#
(0.029)
0.118#
(0.070)
0.634*
(0.319)
0.308**
(0.110)
0.199
(0.128)
0.555**
(0.190)
0.007
(0.018)
Unemployment duration (years) − 0.011***
(0.003)
− 0.033***
(0.010)
− 0.117***
(0.033)
− 0.061***
(0.014)
− 0.061***
(0.016)
− 0.171***
(0.031)
− 0.005**
(0.002)
Number of previous unemployment episodes 0.022
(0.019)
0.059
(0.043)
0.299
(0.222)
0.041
(0.066)
0.070
(0.071)
0.046
(0.133)
0.033*
(0.014)
Age 0.038***
(0.010)
0.120***
(0.026)
0.443***
(0.105)
0.161***
(0.039)
0.092*
(0.042)
0.104#
(0.063)
0.004
(0.006)
Age2 − 0.000***
(0.000)
− 0.002***
(0.000)
− 0.006***
(0.001)
− 0.002***
(0.000)
− 0.001**
(0.000)
− 0.002*
(0.001)
− 0.000
(0.000)
Migration background − 0.070#
(0.035)
− 0.088
(0.088)
− 0.463
(0.392)
0.190
(0.130)
0.015
(0.155)
0.106
(0.203)
0.036
(0.024)
Education (R: elementary) (CASMIN)
 Secondary 0.021
(0.035)
0.173*
(0.082)
0.876*
(0.395)
0.127
(0.137)
− 0.143
(0.144)
− 0.317
(0.228)
0.015
(0.022)
 Maturity 0.015
(0.049)
0.144
(0.118)
0.457
(0.538)
0.184
(0.192)
− 0.021
(0.222)
0.048
(0.274)
0.010
(0.033)
 Tertiary 0.124*
(0.050)
0.300**
(0.109)
1.408*
(0.558)
0.239
(0.160)
0.183
(0.218)
− 0.247
(0.277)
0.095**
(0.035)
Married − 0.055
(0.039)
− 0.114
(0.100)
− 0.449
(0.427)
− 0.143
(0.167)
− 0.142
(0.179)
0.038
(0.238)
− 0.014
(0.025)
Household size − 0.010
(0.017)
− 0.052
(0.045)
− 0.224
(0.185)
− 0.132*
(0.063)
− 0.090
(0.090)
− 0.009
(0.096)
− 0.012
(0.012)
Household income 0.007#
(0.004)
0.022*
(0.009)
0.092*
(0.038)
0.038**
(0.013)
0.028
(0.018)
− 0.004
(0.020)
0.008**
(0.003)
West Germany − 0.061#
(0.032)
− 0.201**
(0.076)
− 0.751*
(0.345)
− 0.353**
(0.126)
− 0.114
(0.138)
0.024
(0.210)
0.002
(0.020)
Constant − 0.214
(0.211)
− 1.917***
(0.544)
− 4.765*
(2.289)
− 2.209**
(0.837)
− 0.103
(0.905)
− 2.366#
(1.393)
0.207
(0.144)
Observations 1198 1198 1198 1198 1198 1198 1471
  1. Weighted to account for panel attrition from wave 7 to 8; multiple imputation by chained equations to account for missing values data (40 imputations, burn in period of 40 iterations). Goodness-of-fit tests not available after multiple imputation in STATA (see STATA multiple imputation reference manual release 13, p. 79)
  2. Outcome variables Models 1 to 5: job search activity (yes/no); number of job search methods; job search intensity; number of hours spent searching; number of applications; Outcome Variables Models 6 and 7: number job interviews; employed (yes/no)
  3. Robust standard errors in parentheses; ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, #p < 0.10; Sample contains only unemployed in sgb-II context (welfare benefit)
  4. Estimation methods: alinear regression, bnegative binomial count data regression