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Table 1 Effects of unemployment stigma on subjective well-being (H1), health (H2), re-employment expectations (H3) and value placed on employment (H4)

From: The social stigma of unemployment: consequences of stigma consciousness on job search attitudes, behaviour and success

  H1: Subjective well-being H2: Health H3: Expectations H4: Value
Model 1a Model 2a Model 3a Model 4a
Stigma consciousness (0–10) − 0.319***
(0.033)
− 0.196***
(0.040)
− 0.047***
(0.013)
0.125***
(0.017)
Sample (R: population sample) − 0.159
(0.235)
0.025
(0.301)
0.053
(0.099)
0.028
(0.141)
Employment status at wave 6 (R: employed)
 Unemployed − 0.328#
(0.186)
− 0.101
(0.249)
− 0.196*
(0.083)
− 0.215*
(0.096)
 Out of the labour force − 0.219
(0.567)
− 0.287
(0.750)
− 0.004
(0.319)
0.189
(0.376)
Male − 0.347**
(0.115)
− 0.058
(0.144)
0.058
(0.049)
− 0.172**
(0.060)
Unemployment duration (years) 0.003
(0.014)
− 0.038*
(0.019)
− 0.019***
(0.005)
0.013#
(0.007)
Number of previous unemployment episodes − 0.062
(0.072)
0.157#
(0.093)
0.049
(0.032)
0.032
(0.033)
Age − 0.098*
(0.038)
− 0.288***
(0.048)
0.008
(0.017)
0.033
(0.021)
Age2 0.001*
(0.000)
0.003***
(0.001)
− 0.000*
(0.000)
− 0.000
(0.000)
Migration background 0.343*
(0.136)
0.419*
(0.176)
0.088
(0.063)
0.019
(0.074)
Education (R: elementary) (CASMIN)
 Secondary − 0.062
(0.131)
− 0.154
(0.168)
− 0.006
(0.059)
− 0.122#
(0.073)
 Maturity − 0.103
(0.176)
0.476*
(0.226)
0.081
(0.087)
− 0.351***
(0.091)
 Tertiary − 0.138
(0.207)
0.520*
(0.241)
0.125
(0.088)
− 0.310**
(0.100)
Married 0.104
(0.151)
− 0.161
(0.187)
− 0.048
(0.068)
0.183*
(0.085)
Household size 0.059
(0.057)
0.084
(0.082)
− 0.034
(0.030)
0.000
(0.037)
Household income (in 100 €) 0.010
(0.011)
0.019
(0.015)
0.001
(0.005)
0.009
(0.007)
West Germany 0.003
(0.123)
− 0.462**
(0.153)
0.075
(0.055)
− 0.059
(0.066)
Constant 10.008***
(0.822)
12.842***
(1.090)
2.688***
(0.372)
− 1.492**
(0.471)
Observations 1278 1278 1278 1278
  1. Weighted to account for panel attrition from waves 7 to 8; multiple imputations were performed by chained equations to account for missing data values (40 imputations, burn in period of 30 iterations). Goodness-of-fit tests not available after multiple imputations in STATA (see STATA multiple imputation reference manual release 13, p. 79)
  2. Outcome variables in Models 1 to 4: life satisfaction (11-pt. scale); health satisfaction (11-pt. scale); self-assessed re-employment chances (4-pt. scale), and factor score of non-monetary motivation to work (continuous)
  3. Robust standard errors are shown in parentheses; ***p<0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, #p < 0.10
  4. Estimation methods: alinear regression