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Table 1 Industries with highest share of jobs paying less than €8.50 in 2014

From: The effects of the new statutory minimum wage in Germany: a first assessment of the evidence

Industry Total number of jobs (thousands) Jobs below €8,50 per hour
Thousands In percent
Taxis 121 84 69.6
Gambling and lottery 84 48 56.7
Food services (e.g., restaurants) 1.119 576 51.5
Postal services 440 176 40.1
Entertainment and recreation 235 79 33.6
Fishery 3 1 33.2
Accommodation 434 142 32.6
Security firms 160 51 32.0
Production of bakery products and pasta, bakeries 306 94 30.8
Call centres 109 32 29.9
Production and distribution of film and TVprograms; cinemas 51 14 27.9
Other services 212 56 26.6
Advertising agencies 164 40 24.6
Inland water passenger transportation 4 1 23.7
Facility management services 98 23 23.1
Repair services for durables 29 6 22.1
Publishing of books and magazines 150 33 21.9
Retail 2.644 575 21.8
Rental services (e.g., cars, sports equipment) 101 17 16.6
Private household with staff ./. ./. ./.
  1. Does not include industries that were exempted from the statutory minimum wage for a transition period (e.g., hairdressing or agriculture). The Structure of Earnings Survey does not cover private households as employers. However, it is well known from other sources that private households with staff exhibit one of the highest shares of low wages and should thus be included in a top-20 ranking. Source: Destatis, Structure of Earnings Survey 2014, own calculations