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Table 9 Long difference estimates, Western Germany

From: Broadband internet availability and establishments’ employment growth in Germany: evidence from instrumental variables estimations

Dep. var.: \(\Delta { \ln }\left( {\frac{{L_{it + 1} }}{{L_{it} }}} \right)\) t = 2006 t = 2007 t = 2008
Manuf. Services Manuf. Services Manuf. Services
∆DSL availability 0.093 (1.46) 0.194 (2.44)** 0.091 (1.00) 0.195 (2.52)** 0.072 (0.59) 0.031 (0.42)
Establishment controls Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Municipality controls Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Observations 2215 2376 2120 2278 2032 2198
Adjusted R2 0.106 0.060 0.078 0.086 0.094 0.107
  1. t statistics in parentheses. * p < 0.10, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01. All estimations weighted by full-time employment. Constant omitted from output. Standard errors clustered at the municipality level. Data sources: Broadband Atlas Germany, Deutsche Telekom, BHP 7510