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Table 3 OLS estimates, Western Germany

From: Broadband internet availability and establishments’ employment growth in Germany: evidence from instrumental variables estimations

Log employment growth rate Manufacturing Services
DSL availability − 0.028 (− 1.373) 0.004 (0.177) 0.009 (0.342) 0.045 (1.613)
Log full-time employment, est. 0.005 (2.042)** − 0.004 (− 1.597) 0.001 − 0.001
(0.434) (− 0.595)
Log median full-time wage, est. 0.008 (0.647) 0.051 (4.469)*** 0.012 (1.487) 0.015 (2.569)**
Young establishment (< 5 years) 0.004 (0.352) − 0.010 (− 0.997) 0.035 (4.271)*** 0.023 (1.932)*
Mid-age establishment (5–14 years) 0.002 (0.215) − 0.006 (− 0.946) 0.014 (1.987)** 0.007 (1.344)
Share high-skilled 0.060 (2.024)** 0.074 (2.681)*** 0.017 (1.278) 0.014 (1.115)
Log full-time employment, mun. 0.003 (0.989) 0.004 (1.165) 0.000 (0.038) − 0.004 (− 1.018)
Log full-time empl. density, mun. − 0.009 (− 2.407)** − 0.011 (− 2.598)*** − 0.017 (− 3.175)*** − 0.008 (− 2.004)**
Log mean full-time wage, mun. 0.016 (0.643) 0.013 (0.637) 0.083 (1.699)* 0.097 (2.241)**
Log full-time empl. growth rate, mun. 0.036 (1.273) − 0.013 (− 0.540) 0.016 (0.221) 0.009 (0.120)
Share high-skilled, municipality − 0.067 (− 1.470) 0.017 (0.433) − 0.038 (− 0.592) − 0.014 (− 0.357)
Year FE   Yes   Yes
Industry FE (3-digit)   Yes   Yes
District FE   Yes   Yes
Observations 14,823 14,823 18,650 18,650
Adjusted R2 0.008 0.065 0.011 0.056
  1. t statistics in parentheses. * p < 0.10, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01. All estimations weighted by full-time employment. Constant omitted from output. Standard errors clustered at the municipality level. Data sources: Broadband Atlas Germany, BHP 7510