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Table 2 Covariate balance (data for 1999)

From: Broadband internet availability and establishments’ employment growth in Germany: evidence from instrumental variables estimations

Western Germany Above threshold
(IV = 1)
Below threshold (IV = 0) p valuea
Log full-time employment growth rate 0.043 0.041 0.729
Log full-time employment 5.091 5.203 0.077*
Log mean wage 4.370 4.384 0.448
Share high-skilled (occupation) 0.102 0.111 0.182
Share high-qual. (education) 0.027 0.031 0.584
Eastern Germany OPAL area Non-OPAL area p-valuea
Log full-time employment growth rate 0.019 0.003 0.026**
Log full-time employment 6.565 6.175 0.006***
Log mean wage 4.112 4.093 0.307
Share high-skilled (occupation) 0.148 0.141 0.797
Share high-qual. (education) 0.066 0.061 0.351
  1. aFrom a t-test on equality of means cleared of district fixed effects. Data sources: Deutsche Telekom, BHP 7510
  2. * p < 0.1, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01