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Table 14 Subsamples excluding the largest establishments

From: Broadband internet availability and establishments’ employment growth in Germany: evidence from instrumental variables estimations

  Western Germany Eastern Germany
Log empl. growth rate OLS IV (second stage) OLS
Excluding the 5% largest establishments
Manufacturing
DSL availability − 0.031 (− 1.77)* 0.022 (1.20) − 0.084 (− 0.82) − 0.118 (− 1.05) 0.009 (0.89) 0.009 (0.94)
Establishment controls Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Municipality controls Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Year FE   Yes   Yes   Yes
Industry FE (3-digit)   Yes   Yes   Yes
District FE   Yes   Yes   Yes
Observations 14,078 14,078 14,078 14,078 25,133 25,133
Adjusted R2 0.005 0.030 0.004 0.025 0.001 0.015
Services (controls and FE as above)
DSL availability − 0.025 (− 1.68)* − 0.017 (− 1.13) 0.187 (1.79)* 0.253 (2.38)** − 0.002 (− 0.24) − 0.002 (− 0.23)
Observations 17,700 17,700 17,700 17,700 49,267 49,267
Adjusted R2 0.002 0.009 .a − 0.011 0.000 0.007
Excluding establishments > 249 employees (controls and FE as above)
Manufacturing
DSL availability − 0.025 (− 1.33) 0.015 (0.81) − 0.051 (− 0.61) − 0.241 (− 2.31)** − 0.012 (− 1.10) − 0.005 (− 0.48)
Observations 14,716 14,716 14,716 14,716 26,283 26,283
Adjusted R2 0.006 0.053 0.005 0.032 0.003 0.034
Services
DSL availability 0.016 (0.63) 0.017 (0.92) 0.278 (2.50)** 0.274 (2.79)*** − 0.006 (− 0.85) 0.008 (1.09)
Observations 18,620 18,620 18,620 18,620 51,797 51,797
Adjusted R2 0.005 0.039 .a 0.017 0.000 0.015
  1. t statistics in parentheses. * p < 0.10, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01. All estimations weighted by full-time employment. Constant omitted from output. Standard errors clustered at the municipality level. aNot reported because model sum of squares is negative. Data sources: Broadband Atlas Germany, Deutsche Telekom, BHP 7510