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Table 1 Determinants of material deprivation (four deprivation indices, log-linear regression coefficients)

From: Is material deprivation decreasing in Germany? A trend analysis using PASS data from 2006 to 2013

Independent variables Cannot afford Cannot afford (weighted with necessities) Cannot afford (weighted with prevalences) Have not
A1 A2 B C A1 A2 B C A1 A2 B C A1 A2 B C
Resident population
t − 0.042*** − 0.052*** − 0.046*** − 0.109*** − 0.051*** − 0.060*** − 0.063*** − 0.104*** − 0.019* − 0.024*** − 0.021* − 0.081*** − 0.026*** − 0.025*** − 0.028*** − 0.037***
(0.010) (0.007) (0.010) (0.003) (0.011) (0.008) (0.010) (0.007) (0.010) (0.007) (0.010) (0.004) (0.004) (0.003) (0.004) (0.002)
Sample wave 1 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Refreshment sample wave 5 − 0.030 0.019 − 0.054 0 0.034 0.111* 0.053 0 0.007 0.063 − 0.007 0 − 0.011 − 0.012 0.006 0
(0.080) (0.046) (0.070)   (0.088) (0.052) (0.071)   (0.081) (0.044) (0.068)   (0.038) (0.017) (0.030)  
t * Refreshment sample wave 5 0.022 − 0.030 0.005 − 0.002 − 0.062 − 0.077* − 0.060 − 0.037 − 0.028 − 0.069* − 0.039 − 0.037* 0.012 0.017 0.007 0.021*
(0.053) (0.033) (0.038) (0.017) (0.061) (0.038) (0.044) (0.035) (0.055) (0.032) (0.038) (0.021) (0.023) (0.012) (0.020) (0.010)
CATI Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
CAPI 0.010 − 0.033 − 0.038 − 0.013 0.155*** 0.079** 0.106* − 0.004 0.054 − 0.009 Reference − 0.013 0.063*** 0.042*** 0.045** 0.003
(0.050) (0.027) (0.057) (0.024) (0.049) (0.030) (0.047) (0.049) (0.049) (0.026) (0.054) (0.031) (0.018) (0.010) (0.018) (0.017)
Constant 11.385*** 12.228*** 11.410***   5.553*** 5.800*** 5.754***   9.869*** 10.744*** 9.911***   5.146*** 5.247*** 5.310***  
(0.398) (0.252) (0.385)   (0.342) (0.180) (0.333)   (0.380) (0.234) (0.353)   (0.141) (0.080) (0.146)  
ln(Dispersion parameter) 0.216*** 0.392*** 0.354*** 0 − 2.547*** 0 − 2.298*** 0 − 0.300*** − 0.190*** − 0.184*** 0 − 2.544*** − 2.503*** − 2.270*** 0
(0.040) (0.022) (0.038)   (0.266)   (0.224)   (0.049) (0.030) (0.047)   (0.090) (0.048) (0.084)  
Observations 42,448 19,650 42,101 26,055 42,448 19,650 42,101 26,055 42,448 19,650 42,101 26,055 42,448 19,650 42,101 38,030
Individuals 12,884 3741 12,706 5930 12,884 3741 12,706 5930 12,884 3741 12,706 5930 12,884 3741 12,706 8948
UBII recipients
t − 0.063***   − 0.059*** − 0.058*** − 0.062***   − 0.059*** − 0.058*** − 0.043***   − 0.038*** − 0.043*** − 0.034***   − 0.036*** − 0.026***
(0.009)   (0.008) (0.009) (0.010)   (0.009) (0.016) (0.010)   (0.008) (0.011) (0.005)   (0.005) (0.008)
Sample wave 1 Reference   Reference Reference Reference   Reference Reference Reference   Reference Reference Reference   Reference Reference
Refreshment sample wave 5 0.095*   0.081* 0 0.074   0.062 0 0.118**   0.102** 0 0.039   0.049* 0
(0.041)   (0.036)   (0.048)   (0.044)   (0.043)   (0.038)   (0.026)   (0.024)  
t * Refreshment sample wave 5 − 0.034*   − 0.010 0.003 − 0.056*   − 0.023 − 0.006 − 0.067***   − 0.041* − 0.030* − 0.019   − 0.006 0.003
(0.019)   (0.017) (0.012) (0.024)   (0.021) (0.023) (0.021)   (0.018) (0.015) (0.013)   (0.012) (0.011)
CATI Reference   Reference Reference Reference   Reference Reference Reference   Reference Reference Reference   Reference Reference
CAPI 0.116***   0.077*** 0.073*** 0.134***   0.091*** 0.095*** 0.122***   0.081*** 0.078*** 0.073***   0.050*** 0.030*
(0.017)   (0.016) (0.015) (0.020)   (0.019) (0.028) (0.018)   (0.017) (0.019) (0.011)   (0.010) (0.014)
Constant 3.194***   3.221***   2.014***   1.996***   2.758***   2.756***   3.117***   3.145***  
(0.123)   (0.112)   (0.134)   (0.123)   (0.124)   (0.115)   (0.068)   (0.076)  
ln(Dispersion parameter) − 2.141***   − 2.221***   − 46.538   − 24.021   − 2.766***   − 2.920***   0   0  
(0.067)   (0.068)       (0.108)   (0.122)      
Observations 21,242   21,108 16,822 21,242   21,108 16,822 21,242   21,108 16,822 21,242   21,108 16,863
Individuals 9220   9142 4823 9220   9142 4823 9220   9142 4823 9220   9142 4841
  1. Data: Panel Study Labor Market and Social Security (PASS) samples 1, 2, 6, and 7; waves 1–7, 2006–2013
  2. Only respondents from households receiving UBII payments at the time of the interview. A1: Negative binomial regression models controlling for survey design, selection probabilities, and non-response. A2: Negative binomial regression models controlling for panel attrition with a balanced panel. B: Negative binomial regression models controlling for survey design and selection probabilities. C: FE Poisson regression models. * p<.05, ** p<.01, *** p<.001 (one-sided tests)
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