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Table 3 Linear multilevel modelling results for the NEET probability of youth aged from 20 to 24 years (J = 63; n i  = 15,786)

From: Small differences matter: how regional distinctions in educational and labour market policy account for heterogeneity in NEET rates

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
Fixed effects (unstandardised)
 Constant .1000*** .0993*** .2063*** .2074*** .2113***
 Context level (federal state-years)      
  Upper secondary education   .0041 .0059 .0119* −.0029
  Dual apprenticeship   −.0087+ .0018 .0051 .0095
  Vacant jobs   −.0039 −.0078* −.0169*** .0055
  Active labour market policy   −.0105** −.0066* −.0080* −.0182**
 Individual level
  Gender (1 = female)    −.0140** −.0161** −.0141**
  More than 30,000 inhabitants    Reference group Reference group Reference group
  5001 to 30,000 inhabitants    −.0064 −.0057 −.0059
  Up to 5000 inhabitants    −.0190** −.0182** −.0183**
  Country of birth (1 = Austria)    −.0669*** −.0663*** −.0658***
  Citizenship (1 = Austria)    −.0574*** −.0585*** −.0646***
  Third quarter (1 = yes)    −.0013 −.0011 −.0012
  Motherhood (1 = yes)    .3825*** .3825*** .3828***
 Cross-level interactions      
  Gender * upper secondary education     −.0117  
  Gender * dual apprenticeship     −.0064  
  Gender * vacant jobs     .0179**  
  Gender * active labour market policy     .0027  
  Citizenship * upper secondary education      .0089
  Citizenship * dual apprenticeship      −.0105
  Citizenship * vacant jobs      −.0138+
  Citizenship * active labour market policy      .0126+
Random effects (variance components)
 Federal states-year intercept \( \left( {\tau_{{u_{0} }}^{2} } \right) \) .0004989 .0002132 .0001315 .0001330 .0000808
 Federal states-year slopes      
  Gender \( \left( {\tau_{{u_{1} }}^{2} } \right) \)     .0001723  
  Citizenship \( \left( {\tau_{{u_{6} }}^{2} } \right) \)      .0000824
 Residuals \( \left( {\sigma_{\varepsilon }^{2} } \right) \) .0906468 .0906854 .0816046 .0814484 .0815019
ρ (intraclass correlation) .0054736***     
  1. +p < .1
  2. * p < .05
  3. ** p < .01
  4. *** p < .001