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Table 1 Independent variables

From: Small differences matter: how regional distinctions in educational and labour market policy account for heterogeneity in NEET rates

Variable Operationalisation Source Mean
SD
Min
Max
Context-level variables (\( J = 63 \) federal state-years)  
Provision of upper secondary education (SECED) Number of teachers in upper secondary schools per 1000 youths aged between 15 and 20 years Number of teachers: “Zahlenspiegel” provided by the Federal Ministry of Education and Women’s Affairs
Number of youths aged between 15 and 19 years: Labour Force Survey
49.9
28.5
42.6
67.9
Provision of dual vocational education
\( (VOCED \))
Proportion of apprentices of all students in upper secondary education (%) (1) Number of apprentices: “Lehrlingsstatistik” provided by the Austrian Economic Chambers
(2) Number of students in upper secondary education: “Zahlenspiegel” provided by the Federal Ministry of Education and Women’s Affairs
28.6%
6.2%
17.0%
41.4%
Economic performance (JOBS) Vacancies per 1000 people in the Working-age population (1) Vacancies: Statistics Austria
(2) Number of people in the working-age population (15–64 years): Labour Force Survey
7.7
2.4
3.6
14.4
Role of active labour market policy at the federal level (LMPOL) Expenditures for active labour market policy of the federal government per each unemployed youth aged between 15 and 24 years (1) Expenditure for active labour market policy of the federal government: provided by the Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection
(2) Number of unemployed youths: Labour Force Survey
7125.2
1474.0
4764.3
12,753.5
Variable Operationalisation Source   Mean
Individual-level control variables [n (15–19) = 16,942; n (20–24) = 15,786]
Age (AGE) 1 = 20–24 years Labour Force Survey   .523
0 = 15–19 years 15–19 years 20–24 years
Gender (FEMALE) 1 = female
0 = male
Labour Force Survey .490 .498
Size of municipality 1 = up to 5000 residents (INH5000) Labour Force Survey .480 .418
2 = 5001 to 30,000 residents (INH30000) .233 .217
3 = 30,001 and more residents (INH+) .287 (proportions) .365 (proportions)
Country of birth (BORN_AUT) 1 = Austria
0 = other
Labour Force Survey .900 .827
Citizenship (CITIZ_AUT) 1 = Austrian citizenship
0 = other
Labour Force Survey .902 .867
First interview in third quarter (QUARTER3) 1 = yes Labour Force Survey .251 .245-
0 = no
Motherhood (MOTHER) 1 = yes Labour Force Survey .017 .047
0 = no