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Tab. 4 Probit Regressions by Family Background, Overqualification

From: Overqualification of graduates: assessing the role of family backgroundÜberqualifikation von Hochschulabsolventen: Welche Rolle spielt der familiäre Hintergrund?

  Dependent variable: Overqualification
  Low PE High PE
  (1) (2)
(Pre-)Study characteristics:     
Vocational education 0.003 (0.025) 0.019 (0.022)
School grade \(-\) 0.012 (0.011) 0.006 (0.009)
University grade \(-\) 0.041 \({}^{***}\) (0.010) \(-\) 0.037 \({}^{***}\) (0.008)
Duration of study 0.020 \({}^{*}\) (0.011) 0.007 (0.009)
University types, Subjects: a     
Univ.: Medicine & Law \(-\) 0.216 \({}^{***}\) (0.013) \(-\) 0.163 \({}^{***}\) (0.012)
Univ.: Teaching \(-\) 0.144 \({}^{***}\) (0.022) \(-\) 0.111 \({}^{***}\) (0.012)
Univ.: STEM Subjects \(-\) 0.147 \({}^{***}\) (0.024) \(-\) 0.131 \({}^{***}\) (0.017)
UAS: STEM Subjects \(-\) 0.081 \({}^{***}\) (0.030) \(-\) 0.086 \({}^{***}\) (0.016)
Univ.: Bus & Econ 0.024 (0.035) \(-\) 0.045 \({}^{**}\) (0.020)
UAS: Bus & Econ 0.085 (0.052) \(-\) 0.025 (0.035)
UAS: Soc & Cult Science \(-\) 0.117 \({}^{***}\) (0.032) \(-\) 0.021 (0.036)
Job found through:     
Agency of parents/friends 0.129 \({}^{***}\) (0.041) 0.151 \({}^{***}\) (0.041)
Job before studying 0.086 \({}^{*}\) (0.045) 0.175 \({}^{***}\) (0.065)
Job while studying 0.102 \({}^{***}\) (0.033) 0.070 \({}^{**}\) (0.029)
Internship \(-\) 0.088 \({}^{***}\) (0.024) \(-\) 0.050 \({}^{***}\) (0.018)
Worked during study: b     
Yes: related to subject \(-\) 0.081 \({}^{***}\) (0.027) \(-\) 0.001 (0.021)
Yes: not related to subject \(-\) 0.043 (0.028) 0.028 (0.028)
Study was financed by:     
Own work (in %) 0.001 \({}^{**}\) (0.000) \(-\) 0.000 (0.000)
Parental support (in %) 0.000 (0.000) \(-\) 0.000 (0.000)
Distance work and native place: c     
Between 50 km and 100 km \(-\) 0.073 \({}^{***}\) (0.022) 0.017 (0.025)
More than 100 km \(-\) 0.073 \({}^{***}\) (0.021) \(-\) 0.035 \({}^{**}\) (0.017)
Improve career prospects:     
Commitment to the job \(-\) 0.016 (0.020) \(-\) 0.041 \({}^{**}\) (0.016)
Gained experience abroad \(-\) 0.038 \({}^{*}\) (0.022) \(-\) 0.030 \({}^{*}\) (0.016)
Established social networks \(-\) 0.012 (0.020) 0.030 \({}^{*}\) (0.016)
Have been mobile \(-\) 0.044 \({}^{**}\) (0.022) \(-\) 0.009 (0.018)
Attended additional courses 0.008 (0.020) 0.017 (0.016)
Future goals:     
Above-average performance \(-\) 0.023 (0.021) \(-\) 0.041 \({}^{**}\) (0.018)
Fully exploit own potential 0.001 (0.024) 0.034 \({}^{*}\) (0.018)
Fill a leading position 0.007 (0.020) \(-\) 0.013 (0.017)
Socio-demographics d Yes   Yes  
Observations 1997   1709  
Pseudo \(R^{2}\) 0.150   0.202  
  1. Probit estimations; Marginal effects (at the average); Standard errors in parentheses a Reference: Univ: Social & Cultural Sciences b Reference: Not worked during study c Reference: Less than 50 km d Socio-demographic controls include age and dummies for gender, being married, and having children; Significant at 1 % \({}^{***}\), significant at 5 % \({}^{**}\), significant at 10 % \({}^{*}\).