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Table 1 Institutional orders of VET (dual system) and Higher Education

From: The German skill formation model in transition: from dual system of VET to higher education?Das deutsche Ausbildungsmodell im Umbruch: zwischen dualem Berufsbildungssystem und Hochschulstudium

Distinctive criteria of skill formation institutions Higher educationa Dual system of vocational education and training
Guiding principle (main objectives) Academic professionalism Vocational competence in firms and labour markets
Normative references for curricula Representative systematic knowledge in academic disciplines Labour market and employment structure; economic demand for qualifications
Political governance Länder governments Corporatist: (self-)governance by social partners (chambers of trade, industry and commerce), regulated by federal law
Financing Public by the Länder governments Mainly by private enterprises
Status of the learners Students Apprentices with employment contract
Location/organisation of learning processes Universities; institutions independent from workplaces Firms; integrated in work processes
Qualification of teaching personal University degrees; PhD Semi-professional: master (craftsman) diploma; journeyman diploma
Conditions for access Abitur; A-level degree (grammar school)b Certificate of access not legally required
Areas of employment associated with type of skill formation Academic professionals in public and private administrations, research and leading positions; liberal academic professions Skilled work in production and service industries
  1. aUntil 1970 only universities, later including Fachhochschulen with some differences between both types
  2. bRefers to the university sector; in the sector of Fachhochschulen there are special admission routes additionally