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Table 4 Low pay by type of job, 2010. (Source: Federal Statistical Office)

From: Not so standard anymore? Employment duality in GermanyVom Normalarbeitsverhältnis zu atypischen Verträgen? Die Dualisierung des deutschen Arbeitsmarktes

  Total Standard employment Non-standard contracts
All non-standard contracts Part-time work Fixed-term contracts Marginal part-time work Temporary agency workers
Total 20.6 10.8 49.8 20.9 33.5 84.3 67.7
Women 26.5 15.1 47.6 19.2 35.5 84.8 72.9
Men 15.8 8.1 53.7 34.3 31.6 83.4 65.4
Less than upper secondary education 52.8 22.7 77.8 44.7 62.2 88.1 85.5
Upper secondary education 17.7 12.1 39.4 17.1 36.2 77.2 57.6
Tertiary education 1.7 0.5 8.3 2.7 5.7 61.4 20.7
Selected occupational groups
Academic occupations 3.0 1.0 10.5 3.5 5.7 64.9 /
Technicians and equivalent non-tech. occupations 7.6 4.0 24.9 4.7 17.3 68.1 29.2
Office clerks 23.4 10.9 48.1 13.2 39.4 80.3 62.5
Service and sales occupations 42.3 28.4 65.4 30.0 58.3 88.6 72.1
Crafts 16.1 11.1 48.7 32.6 31.3 81.0 47.6
Machine operators and assemblers 23.7 17.1 60.6 33.2 39.7 89.3 63.0
Labourers 61.5 39.7 79.2 56.3 70.7 90.3 89.2