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Table 1 Means and standard deviations of variables used in Heckman estimation

From: Gender and caste-based wage discrimination in India: some recent evidenceGeschlecht und Kaste-ansässige Lohndiskriminierung in Indien: Einige Neue Beweise

Variable Rural Urban
All NSC SC/ST All NSC SC/ST
Log Hourly Wage 1.907 1.981 1.813 2.653 2.695 2.520
(0.678) (0.712) (0.621) (0.854) (0.859) (0.825)
Work participation 0.542 0.484 0.641 0.362 0.346 0.421
Educational level:
Illiterate & below primary 0.416 0.358 0.515 0.199 0.177 0.284
Primary 0.140 0.141 0.139 0.108 0.103 0.127
Middle 0.157 0.165 0.142 0.161 0.158 0.173
Secondary 0.175 0.200 0.133 0.243 0.248 0.220
Higher secondary 0.069 0.082 0.048 0.132 0.138 0.107
Graduate 0.043 0.054 0.023 0.158 0.176 0.089
Experience 23.457 22.758 24.648 20.784 20.697 21.120
(16.243) (16.375) (15.945) (15.362) (15.355) (15.386)
Experience squared 814.045 786.054 861.754 667.966 664.148 682.743
(924.687) (924.335) (923.354) (806.630) (802.113) (823.759)
Sex (Dummy, Ref. -Male) 0.484 0.497 0.461 0.532 0.538 0.509
Marital Status (Dummy, Ref.-Unmarried) 0.715 0.697 0.744 0.685 0.686 0.681
Social group:
Others 0.240 0.419
OBC 0.390 0.376
SC 0.252 0.170
ST 0.118 0.035
Household head’s education:
Illiterate & below primary 0.550 0.483 0.665 0.271 0.239 0.395
Primary 0.180 0.195 0.154 0.154 0.152 0.162
Middle 0.109 0.124 0.085 0.154 0.157 0.143
Secondary and higher secondary 0.135 0.165 0.083 0.286 0.300 0.230
Graduate 0.026 0.033 0.014 0.135 0.152 0.070
Household size 6.216 6.360 5.971 5.597 5.587 5.636
(3.129) (3.282) (2.832) (2.577) (2.650) (2.270)
No. of children 1.876 1.868 1.891 1.379 1.355 1.472
(1.787) (1.830) (1.711) (1.463) (1.471) (1.427)
Agriculture land (in acre):
No land 0.484 0.434 0.568
>0 & ≤4 acre 0.399 0.420 0.363
>4 & ≤15 acre 0.099 0.121 0.061
>15 acre 0.018 0.025 0.007
Non-labor income (in rupees):
No non-labor income 0.918 0.911 0.945
>0 & ≤2500 rupees 0.018 0.018 0.014
>2500 & ≤8000 rupees 0.019 0.020 0.013
>8000 rupees 0.046 0.051 0.027
  1. Notes: The sample consists of individuals aged 15–65 in the IHDS (2005) data. Standard deviations in parentheses and is not reported for dummy variables. Please see online Appendix 1 for description of variables used in the analysis. ‘NSC’ denotes non-scheduled castes group (other backward classes and others)