Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Estimated risk of self-employment and dependent self-employment

From: Dependent self-employment: workers between employment and self-employment in the UKAbhängige Selbständigkeit: Arbeitskräfte im Graubereich zwischen Beschäftigung und Selbständigkeit

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  Dependently self-employed Self-employed Dependently self-employed Self-employed Dependently self-employed Self-employed
  RRR (SE) RRR (SE) RRR (SE) RRR (SE) RRR (SE) RRR (SE)
Personal characteristics             
Male 1.819 0.070 1.825 0.026 1.266 0.053 1.216 0.020 1.969 0.091 1.681 0.031
Age 1.058 0.011 1.171 0.005 1.054 0.011 1.149 0.005 1.111 0.011 1.211 0.006
Age squared/100 0.971 0.012 0.876 0.004 0.978 0.012 0.897 0.005 0.917 0.011 0.843 0.005
Kids under 5 years (#) 1.283 0.044 1.229 0.017 1.289 0.044 1.228 0.017 1.278 0.044 1.252 0.020
Married or cohabiting 0.925 0.036 1.084 0.016 0.962* 0.037 1.076 0.016 0.979* 0.038 1.126 0.018
Non-white 0.944* 0.049 1.067 0.022 0.997* 0.052 1.109 0.023 0.808 0.043 0.830 0.019
Residential tenure             
< 1 year 1.089* 0.065 0.963* 0.023 1.120 0.067 0.949 0.023 1.100 0.069 0.966* 0.025
1–2 years 1.137 0.064 1.005* 0.022 1.170 0.067 0.997* 0.023 1.186 0.068 1.008* 0.025
2–5 years 1.039* 0.046 1.028 0.017 1.057* 0.047 1.015* 0.017 1.083 0.049 1.047 0.019
Education             
Degree or higher education 1.032* 0.055 1.611 0.032 1.013* 0.067 1.069 0.025 1.277 0.084 1.626 0.041
GCE A level or equivalent 1.016* 0.066 1.192 0.030 0.972* 0.067 0.831 0.023 1.144 0.079 1.114 0.033
GCSE A-C level or equiv. 1.171 0.051 1.433 0.024 0.997* 0.046 1.024* 0.019 1.088 0.050 1.171 0.022
Other qualification 0.767 0.040 1.012* 0.020 0.864 0.047 0.978* 0.020 0.904 0.049 1.085 0.023
SOC (t − 1)             
Professionals      3.103 0.232 1.365 0.031 1.068* 0.085 0.368 0.011
Associate prof. and technicians      3.021 0.212 1.278 0.028 0.908* 0.069 0.316 0.008
Clerical occupation      0.837 0.080 0.211 0.008 0.201 0.021 0.047 0.002
Skilled trade      5.265 0.342 1.888 0.038 1.136 0.097 0.397 0.009
Personal service      3.182 0.270 0.872 0.028 0.756 0.069 0.199 0.007
Sales and customer services      0.526 0.066 0.329 0.012 0.111 0.068 0.069 0.003
Operatives      1.910 0.150 0.491 0.013 0.464 0.039 0.100 0.003
Elementary      2.169 0.173 0.382 0.012 0.446 0.039 0.075 0.003
Job tenure             
< 3 Months          1.835 0.129 0.609 0.030
3–6 months          1.336 0.110 0.614 0.030
Last year:             
Part-time          2.318 0.108 1.418 0.030
Supervisor          0.076 0.006 0.021 0.001
  1. Note: Estimation results from a multi-nomial logit regression, comparison group are employees. Sample sizes are 217,230 employees, 38,562 self-employed, and 4,146 dependently self-employed. Omitted categories are: female, no child or children over the age of 5, other marital status, white, residential tenure of more than 5 years, no formal education, last year full-time or not working, job tenure of more than 6 months, managers and senior officials, not a supervisor at t − 1. All models include 13 indicator variables for the area of residence and five indicators for the year. All estimates are statistically significant on a 10% error-level, or less, unless indicated by * (the test is against the alternative that the RRR equals 1)