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Table 2 Summary statistics by employment status

From: Dependent self-employment: workers between employment and self-employment in the UKAbhängige Selbständigkeit: Arbeitskräfte im Graubereich zwischen Beschäftigung und Selbständigkeit

  Employee Self-employed Dependently self-employed
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Male 0.572 0.738 0.730
Age 38.981 11.863 44.911 10.395 43.107 11.502
White 0.794 0.797 0.796
Lives with spouse 0.695 0.816 0.763
Kids under 19 years (#) 0.760 1.020 0.881 1.140 0.828 1.100
Kids under 5 years (#) 0.176 0.462 0.185 0.484 0.203 0.497
Kids 5–9 years (#) 0.199 0.492 0.245 0.551 0.230 0.532
Highest qualification       
Degree or equivalent 0.141 0.190 0.157
Higher education 0.081 0.080 0.082
GCE A level or equiv. 0.269 0.329 0.324
GCSE A-C level or equiv. 0.244 0.158 0.154
Other qualification 0.145 0.113 0.144
No qualification 0.120 0.130 0.138
Residential tenure       
< 1 year 0.100 0.069 0.089
1–2 years 0.104 0.082 0.101
2–3 years 0.080 0.070 0.074
3–5 years 0.123 0.119 0.120
5–10 years 0.186 0.196 0.181
>= 10 years 0.406 0.463 0.435
Job characteristics:       
Regular working hoursa 34.019 11.522 41.337 18.063 36.180 17.933
Job tenure       
< 3 months 0.042 0.018 0.061
3–6 months 0.038 0.018 0.042
6–12 months 0.072 0.037 0.069
1–2 years 0.145 0.079 0.131
2–5 years 0.248 0.170 0.207
5–10 years 0.166 0.172 0.156
10–20 years 0.191 0.286 0.195
>= 20 years 0.098 0.220 0.138
Occupation       
Managers and senior officials 0.177 0.202 0.069
Professionals 0.079 0.128 0.136
Associate professionals and technicians 0.105 0.139 0.126
Clerical occupation 0.131 0.029 0.044
Skilled trade 0.119 0.302 0.336
Personal service 0.053 0.055 0.073
Sales and customer services 0.104 0.025 0.011
Operatives 0.116 0.073 0.107
Elementary 0.107 0.043 0.097
Same occupation as t − 1 0.642 0.679 0.642
Sector    
Agriculture 0.010 0.058 0.056
Energy 0.017 0.002 0.010
Manufacturing 0.245 0.069 0.096
Construction 0.069 0.213 0.307
Distribution 0.250 0.189 0.055
Transport 0.084 0.067 0.087
Banking and finance 0.195 0.0192 0.197
Public administration 0.086 0.098 0.104
Other services 0.044 0.112 0.088
Employment at t − 1       
Self-employed. w/o employees 0.007 0.656 0.805
Part-time 0.211 0.184 0.256
Supervisory 0.307 0.034 0.052
Occupation       
Managers and senior officials 0.174 0.226 0.089
Professionals 0.075 0.129 0.121
Associate prof. and technicians 0.095 0.133 0.133
Clerical occupations 0.141 0.031 0.048
Skilled trade 0.125 0.284 0.312
Personal services 0.061 0.049 0.073
Sales and customer services 0.105 0.031 0.020
Operatives 0.116 0.073 0.107
Elementary 0.107 0.043 0.097
N 217,331 38,565 4,146
  1. a # of observations: employee (200,151), self-employed (34,522), dependently self-employed (3,671)